Abstract: This paper reviews the benefits of a better understanding of atmospheric exchange processes over mountains. These processes affect weather and climate variables that are important in meteorological applications related to many scientific disciplines and sectors of the economy. We focus this review on examples of meteorological applications in hydrology, ecology, agriculture, urban planning, wind energy, transportation, air pollution, and climate change. These examples demonstrate the benefits of a more accurate knowledge of atmospheric exchange processes over mountains, including a better understanding of snow redistribution, microclimate, land-cover change, frost hazards, urban ventilation, wind gusts, road temperatures, air pollution, and the impacts of climate change. The examples show that continued research on atmospheric exchange processes over mountains is warranted, and that a recognition of the potential benefits can inspire new research directions. An awareness of the links between basic research topics and applications is important to the success and impact of new efforts that aim at better understanding atmospheric exchange processes over mountains. To maximize the benefits of future research for meteorological applications, coordinated international efforts involving scientists studying atmospheric exchange processes, as well as scientists and stakeholders representing many other scientific disciplines and economic sectors are required.