Abstract: Pollutant dispersion processes over complex terrain are much more complicated than over flat areas, as they are affected by atmospheric interactions with the orography at different spatial scales. This paper reviews recent findings and progress in this field, focusing on both experimental and modeling perspectives. It highlights open questions and challenges to our capability for better understanding and representing atmospheric processes controlling the fate of pollutants over mountainous areas. In particular, attention is focused on new measurement techniques for the retrieval of spatially distributed turbulence information and air quality parameters, and on challenges for meteorological and dispersion models to reproduce fine-scale processes influenced by the orography. Finally, specific needs in this field are discussed, along with possible directions for future research efforts.